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An of languages spoken across the British Isles

Macbeth: Act II, "La luce langue...O voluttà del soglio"

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note: data represent native language spoken (2010 est.)

For 50 years, computer programmers have been writing code. New technologies continue to emerge, develop, and mature at a rapid pace. Now there are more than 2,500 documented programming languages! O'Reilly has produced a poster called (PDF: 701K), which plots over 50 programming languages on a multi-layered, color-coded timeline.

Omole (1985:26) aptly describes this dilemma faced by Africanwriters who are led by circumstances to use a European languageas "a clash between a desirable ideal and a compelling reality".The desirable ideal, according to Omole (1982:33), is " theexpected social functions of literature: to inform, entertainand reform....", while the compelling reality resides largelyin Africa's linguistic complexities and the unpreparedness ofmany of the numerous African languages to immediately serve thewriter's purpose. The virtues of these African languages thusappear to the acknowledged by most writers and critics.

note: English is a secondary language of the elite (2010 est.)

  • Languages of the Ainur (Valar and Maiar)
    • Valarin
      • Black Speech, created by Sauron
  • Inalco - Langues O', Paris, France

    Their mortality is a reminder of the mortality of their cultures, an intimation that with each speaker’s death another vital artery has been severed. Against that—against the possibility that their language could slip away without alarm or notice—stands a proud perseverance, a reverence for the old, an awareness that in important ways a key to our future lies behind us. That, and an insistence that the tongues least spoken still have much to say.

    J'ai d'abord étudié l'origine ainsi que la création de cette langue mais aussi sa grammaire et ses formes. En dernier j'ai entrevu la place qu'à pris cette langue aujourd'hui et sa transmission au cours du temps, dans le monde.