were appointed professors at Hogwarts in , after Dumbledore's . Amycus taught Defence Against the Dark Arts, which he changed to the , and Alecto taught with an obvious anti-Muggle slant. Amycus and Alecto liked to punish the students with the use of torture, and ordered students to practice the on other students who had been detained. Neville helped re-form Dumbledore's Army, along with Ginny and Luna, and maintained a steady opposition against the Carrows throughout the course of the year. In an attempt to control Neville, Ministry Auror John Dawlish was sent to take Neville's grandmother hostage; unfortunately for Dawlish, the tenacious Augusta Longbottom fought back, apparently putting Dawlish in St. Mungo's and going on the run. As the Carrows no longer had hope of finding any real leverage to use against Neville, and had no reason not to simply kill him, Neville went into hiding in the Room of Requirement, where he was soon joined by a number of other Gryffindor, and students who saw fit to do the same.
Neville was raised by his grandmother, Augusta Longbottom, after his parents were the point of insanity when he was an infant. This was pivotal in the development of his personality, as his grandmother often expressed her disappointment with her grandson's seeming lack of magical ability, and what she considered his inability to live up to his parents' skills.
Shortly after, a handful of Voldemort's most loyal followers attacked the Longbottoms. Frank and Alice were tortured into insanity with the by , her husband , her brother-in-law , and . The four Death Eaters were all sentenced to for their crimes, while Frank and Alice were sent to , where they would live the rest of their lives, not being able to recognise their own son. Neville was subsequently raised by his paternal grandmother, . At some point early in his life, he also witnessed the death of his grandfather.
Neville Longbottom was born on , to Alice and Frank Longbottom. Moments after his birth, Neville was able to adjust his blankets so that he was swaddled more snugly, but no one witnessed this unusually precocious display of . The midwife who attended the birth assumed that his father had tucked him in more tightly.